Industrial solid waste has become an effective alternative raw material for important industrial products such as cement

Introduction of high-performance, low-cost, environmentally friendly concrete technology from fly ash, iron ore powder, red mud and other industrial solid wastes.

1 Overview
Concrete, the most widely used artificial material in the world, is made of cement, water, stones, sand, and a small amount of additives. Cement is the most important material in concrete. The global annual cement production reaches 4.6 billion tons, and China contributes more than half of it.

Cement production requires burning and decomposing calcium carbonate and other minerals, which is a process with high energy consumption and high pollution: every ton of cement produced will emit about one ton of carbon dioxide. More than 4 billion tons of greenhouse gases emitted by cement production each year account for 6-8% of total global human greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to the total annual emissions of 600 million cars (all cars in China, the United States, and Europe) . Finding clean alternatives to cement is a worldwide problem.

At the same time, bulk solid wastes such as fly ash, iron ore powder, and red mud have caused a lot of accumulation and environmental pollution (fly ash is the waste from coal-fired power generation, iron ore powder is the waste from steel production, and red Mud is the waste from the aluminium production process). The world produces 450 million tons of fly ash, more than 300 million tons of iron ore powder, and 150 million tons of red mud every year. Due to the very low utilization rate, billions of tons of fly ash, iron ore powder and red mud have been piled up and buried in the world.

2. Main features and advantages of this technology
The concept of replacing cement with fly ash to produce concrete has existed for decades, but it has not been widely used due to low strength, high price, high temperature curing, and difficult to control setting time.

Through years of research, the developers of this technology have overcome the above problems, making mass production of this technology possible, and have achieved success in the mass production of fly ash concrete developed in China and the United States.

3. The main purpose of this technology
This technology can be used for ready-to-use concrete and any cement product, including but not limited to:
1) Commercial concrete
2) Precast concrete
3) Fly ash blocks, wall panels, bricks, etc.

4 Conclusion
Fly ash, iron ore powder, and red mud to replace cement have important applications in the field of environmental protection building materials. Compared with ordinary concrete, geopolymer concrete using red mud fly ash instead of cement has the following advantages:

1) Solid wastes such as fly ash, mineral powder and red mud can completely replace cement;
2) All performance indicators meet the standards, and the strength is excellent,
3) Save the cost of cement;
4) Dispose of bulk solid wastes such as fly ash, mineral powder, red mud;
5) The price of additives is similar to that of ordinary concrete additives;
6) Fly ash and red mud concrete have obvious advantages in performance, price, and environmental protection.