Five Treatment Technologies of Industrial Solid Waste

Solid waste has always been an important issue in the process of industrial development. After the reform and opening up, my country’s industry has developed rapidly, which has brought a huge amount of industrial solid waste, and a large part of it is hazardous solid waste, which not only causes solid waste pollution, but also is accompanied by heavy metal and toxic chemical pollution. The environment we live in has a huge impact, so how to better deal with solid waste has become a key issue that we must solve.


The treatment of industrial solid waste itself is a type of discipline and technology covering many fields with strong professionalism, most of which belong to the three disciplines of biology, physics and chemistry. The overall composition of industrial solid waste is relatively complex. In addition, due to the large differences in the economic development levels of different countries in the world, and most countries’ investment in energy is relatively insufficient, eventually leading to industrial solid waste in different countries and regions There are relatively large differences in the technical level of processing. In addition, even in the same country, there will be uneven technological development due to different regional development levels.


  1. Basic categories of industrial hazardous solid waste

Hazardous solid waste is the waste generated in the production process of some industrial fields, such as oil refining, medicine, mining and chemistry. In addition, we also produce certain hazardous solid waste in our daily life. The most dangerous of all industrial hazardous solid wastes is nuclear waste. At present, my country’s solid waste includes 46 categories, and the variety is about 480 groups, while the common solid waste mainly includes: industrial, medical industry and other social industry solid waste. From the perspective of the source of waste generation, it is mainly divided into two types: social waste and industrial waste; according to the nature of solid waste itself, we can divide it into four types: organic waste, inorganic waste, oily waste and other wastes. kind.


  1. Analysis of five major disposal technologies for industrial solid waste

2.1 Incineration

Incineration is the easiest way to deal with industrial hazardous solid waste. It uses high heat to modify the original properties of solid waste. This method itself has extremely high treatment efficiency. Usually, it can reduce the volume of the original object by more than 80%. , and the properties of the substance itself after combustion are more stable, which also lays a solid foundation for the later processing work. However, the biggest disadvantage of incineration treatment is that other harmful substances will be produced during the incineration process, causing secondary pollution to the environment.



2.2 Curing treatment

There are many kinds of curing technologies, among which the curing of chemicals, cement and glass is the most common way. Relevant research data shows that the solidification treatment meets the corresponding safety landfill standards in the incineration of residues. However, the solidification technology itself cannot deal with oily or oily oily soils. The reason is that the oily sludge has relatively high water content and large particles, which is usually the first improvement in the treatment process. , so as to achieve the purpose of solving this problem, and this solution provides more possibilities for better treatment of large-scale oily sludge in oil fields.


2.3 Rapid carbonation

Rapid carbonation technology was first proposed by Seifritz in 1990. Its basic principle is to place waste products in a relatively high concentration of CO2 environment to further increase their reaction speed. The earliest application of this technology was in the carbonization of minerals. Studies have shown that most minerals can react chemically with CO2, such as: waste building materials, steel slag and carbide slag, etc. The content of heavy metals in the above substances is relatively high, so in the process of carbonation, more than 80% heavy metals. At present, about 500,000 tons of charcoal-fired fly ash are produced in my country’s industry every year, and most of the fly ash will contain a certain amount of heavy metals. Through systematic analysis of pH value, carbonation time and the overall gas-solid ratio of carbonation reaction, some scholars found that NaCl and KCl contained in fly ash had a reverse effect on the experimental device, which eventually led to further loosening of the fly ash structure. After the precipitation of metals such as , zinc, etc., the fly ash must be treated in the next step. The slag remaining after the carbonation reaction forms cement, which is currently an important building material.


2.4 Plasma gasification

Plasma gasification technology is currently the latest harmless solid waste treatment method. Its main working principle is to artificially create an oxygen-deficient and high-temperature environment, thereby converting hazardous solid waste into flammable mixtures such as H2 or CO. gas. At present, the main application of this technology is in the treatment of municipal waste and agricultural solid waste. At present, developed countries in Europe and the United States have applied plasma gasification technology to the treatment of medical waste, construction waste and petroleum waste. The treatment of such hazardous waste itself has certain flammability. The whole process of oxidation, political law and decomposition, but in order to achieve this purpose, equipment with relatively high technical content must be required.


Compared with other types of hazardous solids treatment technologies, plasma gasification technology requires a relatively low overall water content of the objects to be treated, and can effectively treat the original sludge and sewage into usable resources. To achieve the purpose of further compressing the solid volume, in addition, most of the toxic substances in the inert waste residue can be expanded and effectively repaired or decomposed.


2.5 Supercritical water oxidation

At present, supercritical water oxidation technology has been widely promoted and applied in Japan and developed countries in Europe and the United States. It is mainly used in the treatment of plastic degradation, organic wastewater and biological sludge. As early as 1995, Austin, the United States has built a real commercial treatment device and applied it to long-chain amines and other types of organic solid waste products. In general, the process of this method is relatively simple, but it will be affected by many factors. Therefore, in the process of developing supercritical water oxidation technology, once the overall content of organic matter in the medium can reach 2%, it can assist the entire oxidation process to achieve complete naturalness. Compared with other treatment methods, this method is more efficient. Energy saving.



At present, the domestic treatment of hazardous solid waste is still in its infancy, and the level of investment and management is relatively limited. Moreover, because the rhythm of hazardous solid waste itself is relatively complex, it is necessary to carry out targeted treatment according to its type, and further development and innovation of the existing self-made technology is being carried out, and the overall cost of curing is further reduced. In addition, as a relevant state department, it should strengthen the construction of laws and regulations, and effectively integrate relevant norms, encourage industry development, and ensure the healthy development of my country’s industry.